Diabetes a Health Hazard

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DIABETES

Definition as stated by Dr Miriam Stoppard

Types of diabetes
1- Type 1
2- Type 2

Causes
1- Lifestyle
2- Disorders
3- Gestational diabetes

DIABETES MELLITUS

Long term complication
1-Heart problem
2-Eye

Treatment
1-Insulin Prevention
2- Good lifestyle 1-healthy diet
3- Monitoring blood glucose 2-blood pressure measurement
3- healthy lifestyle

Symptoms
1-excessive urination
2- weakness
3- weight loss

Notes from readings

– pancreas either produces insufficient amounts of insulin or body cells become resistant to the hormone’s effects.

– Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

– Although dietary measures are also important, it must be treated with insulin injections. About 60,000 people in the UK have this type of diabetes.

– The pancreas continues to secrete insulin but cells in the body become resistant to its effects.

– Diabetes mainly affects people over the age of 40 and is more common in overweight people.

– Condition may be treated with dietary measures only.

– Diabetes mellitus can sometimes develop during pregnancy. This is called gestational diabetes and is usually treated with insulin to maintain the health of the mother and baby.

– Type 1 diabetes is usually caused by an abnormal reaction in which the immune system destroys insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas.

– Type 2 diabetes are less well understood, but the genetics and obesity are important factors.

– The symptoms of type 2 may not be obvious or may go unnoticed until a routine medical check-up. The main symptoms of both forms may include:

– Excessive urination

– Thirst and a dry mouth

– Insufficient sleep because of the need to urinate at night.
– Lack of energy

– Blurry vision

– Weight loss

Symptoms of type 2 may go unnoticed until routine medical check up.

The main symptoms of both forms may include:
– excessive urination
– thirst and a dry mouth
– insufficient sleep because of the need to urinate at night.
– Lack of energy
– Blurry vision
– Weight loss

The main symptoms of ketoacidosis include:
– nausea and vomiting, sometimes with abdominal pain.
– Deep breathing.
– Acetone smell to the breath (like pear drops or nail polish remover)
– Confusion.

Living with diabetes:
– A healthy diet
– Drinking and smoking
– Special care for your feet.
– Exercise and sports.
– Strenuous exercise
– Moderate exercise
– Medical check up
– Eye examination
– Blood pressure measurement.

Treatment for:
Type 1
Insulin can be injected into any fatty area, such as upper arm.

Source: Dr Miriam Stoppard , Doling Kindersley Ltd 2002 ‘Family Health Guide’, pages 504 to 507.

“Department of Diabetes, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to:
P Home. Department of Diabetes, The Medical School, University of Newcastle
upon Tyne, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK.
philip.home@newcastle.ac.uk
Received: ; revised: December 10, 2002
Diabetes Metab 2003,29,101-9 • © 2003 Masson, all rights reserved 101″

– Diabetes is a growing healthcare challenge worldwide.

-A considerable proportion
of people either have impaired glucose tolerance with a significant
risk of development of diabetes, or have undiagnosed Type 2
diabetes.

-Pivotal to reducing the risk of morbidity and the development
of complications and mortality is the normalisation of both fasting
and postprandial blood glucose levels.

-diabetes is reaching epidemic proportions
worldwide, with between 5 and 10% of the world population
affected.

– People with diabetes have approximately twice
the prevalence of hypertension compared with non-diabetic
patients

-40% of subjects were defined as hypertensive on entry
(receiving antihypertensive treatment or with a mean systolic
blood pressure ? 160 mmHg and/or a mean diastolic blood
pressure ? 90 mmHg)

-People with diabetes are 17 times more prone to kidney disease,
with diabetic nephropathy being the most common
complication [11]. Diabetic nephropathy may eventually
lead to end-stage renal disease and thus significant mortality.

-Approximately 30-40% of people with diabetes develop
retinopathy, and diabetes is the most common cause of blindness
in the working years of life in developed countries

-According to a 1997 estimate [12], 120 million people
have Type 2 diabetes (approximately 2% of the world population)
and an additional 4 million have Type 1 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes accounts for more than 85% of all cases of
diabetes in developed countries and almost all cases in developing
countries. It appears to be epidemic (affecting a high
and increasing proportion of the population) in many parts
of the world, and represents a serious and growing global
health challenge primarily as a result of increased obesity,
ageing populations, increasing urbanisation and a more sedentary
lifestyle [34, 35]. However, data from many parts of
the world with high and increasing prevalence (Asia, Latin
America, China) are not broadly based, and so this estimate
is likely to be markedly low.

-Type 1 diabetes
is one of the most common childhood diseases in developed
European countries and the incidence has increased dramatically
in some newly prosperous countries

-The incidence of Type 2 diabetes in particular is expected
to increase considerably as developing countries become
more Westernised in terms of availability of healthcare and
modernisation of existing resources, as well as a result of
substantial improvements in diabetes surveillance and
screening. Growth is projected to be greatest in Asia and
Africa, where diabetes could become 2-3 times more common
than it is today [12]. By 2025, more than 75% of people
with diabetes will be from developing countries, compared
with 62% in 1995

-Type 2 diabetes suggests a need for continuing
attention to control of blood glucose, blood pressure
and blood lipids through medication, diet and exercise.
People with Type 1 diabetes, and increasingly those with
Type 2 diabetes, have the additional burden of subcutaneous
insulin injections, self-monitoring and care of their insulin
supplies and equipment.

Direct Quote
Dr Miriam’s definition of diabetes is:
“the inability of the body to use glucose for energy due to inadequate amounts of or loss of sensitivity to, the hormone insulin.”

Dr Miriam Stoppard. 2002, Family Health Guide, Dorling Kindersley Ltd, England, Page 504

Paraphrase
The body uses glucose as energy in order to perform work and if it fails because of insufficient amount of insulin (which is essential for the absorption of glucose) or because the body cells become more resistant to the hormone’s effect then we end up with the non-healthy state called diabetes.

Summary
Dr Stoppard states that “Glucose from the blood stream is the main source of energy for the body’s cells. Its absorption is enabled by the pancreas, which produces insulin. Among people suffering from diabetes mellitus, a build up of toxic by- products, like acetone with a pear drop smell, in the body occurs. This is caused by the use of other sources of energy than glucose. Hence the unused glucose accumulates in the blood and urine, causing high blood sugar levels. 1 in 10 diabetes depends on self administered injections of insulin and the rest take oral drug and are careful about their diet. These treatments are vital in preventing the symptoms of high blood sugar level like frequent passing of urine, thirst and loss of weight as well as complications leading to peripheral nerve disorders which may affect the eyes, kidneys, the cardiovascular system. The weakening of the immune system may also cause infections like cystitis.”

Dr Miriam Stoppard. 2002, Family Health Guide, Dorling Kindersley Ltd, England, Page 504

Plan

1- Introduction
a- Definition
b- Types of diabetes
c- Brief description of each diabetes
2- Causes
a- Causes of Type 1 diabetes more frequent in children
b- Causes of Type 2 diabetes more frequent in adults
3- Symptoms
a- Both short term and long term consequences in case of non treatment for both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.
4- Treatment
a- The use of insulin to control diabetes in both Type 1 and Type 2
5- Short Term and Long Term complications.
a- Short term and long term effect in Type 1 diabetes
b- Short term and long term effect in Type 2 diabetes
6- Conclusion
a-healthy diet
b- healthy lifestyle
7- Bibliography

Introduction
Diabetes mellitus is developing in epidemic proportions in today’s world with 5 to 10% of the worldwide population affected. This disease is defined by Dr Stoppard, “as the inability of the body to use glucose for energy due to inadequate amounts of or loss of sensitivity to, the hormone insulin”. Which means that the body uses glucose in order to perform work and if it fails because of insufficient amount of insulin or because the body cells become more resistant to the hormone’s effect then we end up with the non-healthy state called diabetes.

There are two types of diabetes:
1- Type 1 which is caused by the abnormal reaction in which the immune system destroys insulin secreting cells in the pancreas. It is more common in childhood.
2- Type 2 which causes are less understood. However, genetics and overweight are important factors.

Causes
Diabetes of Type 1 is usually caused by some viral diseases which affect the immune system of the child, though the genetic factor of one parent suffering from type 1 diabetes may have some effect, however most children who develop type 1 diabetes do not have parents with diabetes. As for Type 2 diabetes it is the increase in food intake which leads to overweight and obesity as well as the living of a sedentary lifestyle and it mostly affects adults.

Symptoms
Both types of diabetes have the same symptoms where there is excessive urination which account for the thirst and dry mouth but also for the insufficient sleep at night because of the need to go to the toilet. This state is paralleled by the lack of energy; blur vision and quick weight loss, abdominal pain, deep breathing and acetone smell breath may also consist of symptoms of diabetes.

Treatment
While the Type 1 diabetes have to submit themselves to the burden of insulin injection, self monitoring and the care of their insulin supplies and equipments, though the Type 2 diabetes have the need to control their blood glucose, their blood pressure and their blood lipids these may be done through medication, diet and exercise but sometimes in addition the Type 2 diabetes have to make insulin injections as the Type 1’s diabetes with all the inconvenience attached to it. As for treatment by insulin Dr Stoppard states that “Glucose from the blood stream is the main source of energy for the body’s cells. Its absorption is enabled by the pancreas, which produces insulin. Among people suffering from diabetes mellitus, a build up of toxic by-products, like acetone with a pear drop smell, in the body occurs. This is caused by the use of other sources of energy than glucose. Hence the unused glucose accumulates in the blood and urine, causing high blood sugar levels. 1 in 10 diabetes depends on self administered injections of insulin and the rest take oral drug and are careful about their diet. These treatments are vital in preventing the symptoms of high blood sugar level like frequent passing of urine, thirst and loss of weight as well as complications leading to peripheral nerve disorders which may affect the eyes, kidneys, the cardiovascular system. The weakening of the immune system may also cause infections like cystitis.”

Hence, no complete cure of diabetes exist, for it is a chronic disease but it can be controlled so as not to cause more severe damage to the body which is affected by it. For that a healthy diet with special attention to avoid excessive drinking of alcoholic beverages and smoking. Special care should also be taken with the feet and the eyes. Medical check up as well as blood pressure measurement should be regular. While sports should be practiced excessive strenuous exercise should be avoided.

Short Term and Long Term effect
If left unattended the diabetes mellitus may give rise to both short-term and long term complications. In case of Type 1 neglect of treatment may lead to nausea and vomiting accompanied by abdominal pain and deep breathing, while an acetone smell breath is noted. If left untreated the subject quickly enter in a confusion state where dehydration may lead to coma and death. As for the Type 2 diabetes if left untreated as is often the cause long term diseases like cardiovascular diseases occurs which may end up in a stroke. These are consequences of high blood pressure and elevated cholesterol in the blood. There is an increase risk of cataracts in the eyes and symptoms of dizziness upon standing and poor circulation because of nerve damage may lead to ulcers and gangrene.

Conclusion
In conclusion it can be said that the Diabetes mellitus is a disease that compel the one suffering from it to adopt a healthier lifestyle so as to control the devastation that the disease may cause to the body and to avoid the shortening of one’s life.
(810 words)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1- http://www.e2med.com/dm

“Department of Diabetes, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to:
P Home. Department of Diabetes, The Medical School, University of Newcastle
upon Tyne, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK.
philip.home@newcastle.ac.uk
Received: ; revised: December 10, 2002
Diabetes Metab 2003,29,101-9 • © 2003 Masson, all rights reserved 101″

2- Dr Miriam Stoppard, 2002, Family Health Guide, Doling Kindersley Ltd, England